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Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner's English Dictionary - absolute


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(absolutes) Frequency: The word is one of the 3000 most common words in English. 1. Absolute means total and complete. It’s not really suited to absolute beginners... A sick person needs absolute confidence and trust in a doctor. = complete ADJ: usu ADJ n 2. You use absolute to emphasize something that you are saying. About 12 inches wide is the absolute minimum you should consider... I think it’s absolute nonsense. = complete ADJ: ADJ n c darkgreen]emphasis 3. An absolute ruler has complete power and authority over his or her country. He ruled with absolute power. ADJ: ADJ n 4. Absolute is used to say that something is definite and will not change even if circumstances change. They had given an absolute assurance that it would be kept secret. ADJ: usu ADJ n 5. An amount that is expressed in absolute terms is expressed as a fixed amount rather than referring to variable factors such as what you earn or the effects of inflation. In absolute terms British wages remain low by European standards. ? real ADJ: ADJ n 6. Absolute rules and principles are believed to be true, right, or relevant in all situations. There are no absolute rules. ? relative ADJ: usu ADJ n 7. An absolute is a rule or principle that is believed to be true, right, or relevant in all situations. N-COUNT 8. see also decree absolute
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  adjective Etymology: Middle English absolut, from Anglo-French, from Latin absolutus, from past participle of absolvere to set free, absolve Date: 14th century 1. a. free from imperfection ; perfect it is a most ~ and excellent horse — Shakespeare b. free or relatively free from mixture ; pure ~ alcohol c. outright, unmitigated an ~ lie 2. being, governed by, or characteristic of a ruler or authority completely free from constitutional or other restraint ~ power 3. a. standing apart from a normal or usual syntactical relation with other words or sentence elements the ~ construction this being the case in the sentence “this being the case, let us go” b. of an adjective or possessive pronoun standing alone without a modified substantive blind in “help the blind” and ours in “your work and ours” are ~ c. of a verb having no object in the particular construction under consideration though normally transitive kill in “if looks could kill” is an ~ verb 4. having no restriction, exception, or qualification an ~ requirement ~ freedom 5. positive, unquestionable ~ proof 6. a. independent of arbitrary standards of measurement b. relating to or derived in the simplest manner from the fundamental units of length, mass, and time ~ electric units c. relating to, measured on, or being a temperature scale based on ~ zero ~ temperature; specifically kelvin 10° ~ 7. fundamental, ultimate ~ knowledge 8. perfectly embodying the nature of a thing ~ justice 9. being self-sufficient and free of external references or relationships an ~ term in logic ~ music 10. being the true distance from an aircraft to the earth's surface ~ altitude • ~ noun • ~ness noun ...
Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary
  adj. & n. --adj. 1 complete, utter, perfect (an absolute fool; absolute bliss). 2 unconditional, unlimited (absolute authority). 3 despotic; ruling arbitrarily or with unrestricted power (an absolute monarch). 4 (of a standard or other concept) universally valid; not admitting exceptions; not relative or comparative. 5 Gram. a (of a construction) syntactically independent of the rest of the sentence, as in dinner being over, we left the table; let us toss for it, loser to pay. b (of an adjective or transitive verb) used or usable without an expressed noun or object (e.g. the deaf, guns kill). 6 (of a legal decree etc.) final. --n. Philos. 1 a value, standard, etc., which is objective and universally valid, not subjective or relative. 2 (prec. by the) a Philos. that which can exist without being related to anything else. b Theol. ultimate reality; God. Phrases and idioms absolute alcohol Chem. ethanol free from water or other impurities. absolute magnitude the magnitude, i.e. brightness, of a celestial body as seen at a standard distance of 10 parsecs (opp. apparent magnitude). absolute majority 1 a majority over all others combined. 2 more than half. absolute pitch Mus. 1 the ability to recognize the pitch of a note or produce any given note. 2 a fixed standard of pitch defined by the rate of vibration. absolute temperature one measured from absolute zero. absolute zero a theoretical lowest possible temperature, at which the particles whose motion constitutes heat would be minimal, calculated as -273.15 °C (or 0 °K). Derivatives absoluteness n. Etymology: ME f. L absolutus past part.: see ABSOLVE ...
Толковый словарь английского языка Oxford English Reference
  1) абсолютное масло, абсолю (спирторастворимая часть экстрактового масла) 2) абсолютный; безусловный - cassie absolute - jasmin absolute - jonquil absolute - lavander absolute - lilac absolute - lily of the valley absolute - mimosa absolute - narcissus absolute - oakmass absolute - orris absolute - rose absolute - rose de mai absolute - styrax absolute - tobacco flower absolute - tobacco leaf absolute - tuberose absolute ...
Большой Англо-русский Русско-английский политехнический словарь
  мировой, абсолютный (о новизне изобретения) ABSOLUTE прил. полный, совершенный, абсолютный, неограниченный, несомненный - absolute accuracy - absolute gift - absolute monopoly - absolute necessity - absolute number - absolute optimum - absolute ownership - absolute power - absolute preference - absolute property - absolute requirement - global optimum ...
Англо-русский Русско-английский экономический словарь
  1) чистый, беспримесный 2) абсолютный (о спирте) 3) полный, безусловный, совершенный ...
Англо-русский Русско-английский биологический словарь
  1. филос. абсолют; окончательная действительность в идеалистической философии 2. absolutes абсолютные понятия, принципы, ценности и т. п. to speak in terms of absolutes —- оперировать абсолютными понятиями 3. мат. абсолютная величина, модуль 4. абсолют 5. полный, совершенный, безусловный, абсолютный absolute indifference —- полное безразличие absolute beauty —- совершенная красота absolute promise —- ничем не обусловленное обещание absolute purity —- первозданная чистота absolute trust —- полное доверие 6. абсолютный, неограниченный; самовластный absolute power —- неограниченная власть absolute monarchy —- абсолютная монархия absolute ruler —- самовластный правитель 7. чистый, беспримесный absolute alcohol —- чистый спирт 8. действительный, несомненный absolute fact —- действительный факт absolute proof —- несомненное доказательство absolute evidence —- неопровержимое свидетельство 9. относящийся к абсолюту; абсолютный (в идеалистической философии) absolute reality —- первоначальная, самосуществующая реальность; абсолютная, непознаваемая реальность absolute idealism —- абсолютный идеализм absolute ego —- трансцендентальное эго absolute spirit —- всеобщий дух, Абсолют 10. спец. абсолютный absolute humidity —- физ. абсолютная влажность absolute scale —- абсолютная...
Новый большой англо-русский словарь
  scale абсолютная шкала ABSOLUTE pitch  а) абсолютная высота тона;  б) абсолютный слух; ABSOLUTE temperature phys. абсолютная (термодинамическая) температура ABSOLUTE  1. adj.  1) полный; безусловный, абсолютный absolute trust - абсолютное доверие absolute ceiling - теоретический потолок absolute legacy - завещательный отказ, не связанный с какими-л. условиями absolute majority - абсолютное большинство absolute veto - абсолютное вето  2) чистый, беспримесный absolute alcohol - чистый, неразбавленный спирт absolute ether - чистый эфир  3) самовластный; абсолютный; неограниченный absolute monarchy - абсолютная монархия absolute power - неограниченная власть absolute ruler - самовластный правитель  4) действительный, несомненный absolute fact - действительный (непреложный) факт absolute proof - несомненное доказательство absolute evidence - неопровержимое свидетельство  6) philos. относящийся к абсолюту; абсолютный (в идеалистической философии) absolute idealism - абсолютный идеализм  7) абсолютный - absolute humidity - absolute scale - absolute system - absolute temperature - absolute value - absolute zero  8) gram. абсолютный ablative absolute - аблатив абсолютный, абсолютная аблативная конструкция, абсолютный причастный оборот Syn: see basic  2. noun  1) philos. (обыкн. the absolute, the A.) абсолют; окончательная действительность...
Англо-русский словарь
  ~ S2 W3 adj 1 only before noun especially spoken used to emphasize your opinion about something or someone, especially when you think they are very bad, stupid, unsuccessful etc  (absolute disgrace/disaster/chaos etc)  (The house looked an absolute shambles. | I think it's an absolute disgrace the way they treat that child.) an ~ genius/fool/idiot etc  (How did you do that? You're an absolute genius.) ~ nonsense/rubbish (=used to say that you think that what someone is saying is completely stupid) 2 absolute silence, freedom, loyalty etc is the state of being completely silent, free etc  (I have absolute confidence in her.) 3 absolute power or authority is complete and unlimited  (absolute ruler/monarch (=a ruler with unlimited power)) 4 definite and not likely to change  (I can't give you any absolute guarantees about your safety.) 5 in absolute terms measured by itself, not in comparison with other things  (In absolute terms wages have risen, but not in comparison with the cost of living.) ...
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
  - c.1380, from L. absolutus, pp. of absolvere "to set free, make separate" (see absolve). Most of the current senses were in L. Sense evolution is from "detached, disengaged," thus "perfect, pure." Meaning "despotic" (1612) is from notion of "absolute in position;" hence absolutism, 1753 in theology, 1830 in politics. ...
Английский Этимологический словарь


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